Conditioned response cr. C. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Initially a neutral stimulus. A...

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conditioned response (CR): In classical conditioning, an organism’s learned response to a conditioned stimulus. conditioned stimulus (CS): In classical conditioning, an environmental event that an organism associates with an unconditioned stimulus; the conditioned stimulus begins to lead to a reaction that is similar to an unconditioned …The behavior caused by the conditioned stimulus is called the conditioned response (CR). In the case of Pavlov’s dogs, they had learned to associate the tone (CS) with …Fear Conditioning. H. Flor, N. Birbaumer, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001 1 Basic Terms. The pairing of an initially neutral stimulus (the conditioned stimulus—CS) with a biologically relevant stimulus (the unconditioned stimulus—US) comes to elicit a response (conditioned response—CR) that is usually …Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like In classical conditioning, which is an originally irrelevant stimulus that becomes associated and triggers a learned response?, The tendency for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit a similar response is called, Which statement is FALSE in regards to the law of effect? and more.In this case, the chemotherapy drugs are the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), vomiting is the unconditioned response (UCR), the doctor’s office is the conditioned stimulus (CS) after being paired with the UCS, and nausea is the conditioned response (CR). Learning Objectives. Describe how Pavlov’s early work in classical conditioning influenced the understanding of learning. Review the concepts of classical conditioning, including unconditioned stimulus (US), …Pavlov (1927) observed that pairing an initially innocuous stimulus (i.e., conditioned stimulus, CS) with a biologically relevant stimulus (i.e., unconditioned stimulus, US) caused subsequent presentations of the CS to elicit a conditioned response (CR) that is usually similar to the unconditioned response (UR) evoked by the biologically relevant stimulus.The chemotherapy medications are the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in this scenario, vomiting is the unconditioned response (UCR), the doctor's office is the conditioned stimulus (CS) after being matched with the UCS, and nausea is the conditioned response (CR). Nausea is the common symptom of both acute and chronic chemotherapy-induced nausea. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Define learning. Be able to identify examples of a response and reinforcement., Describe Pavlov's classical conditioning study (1927). Be able to identify the following: unconditioned stimulus (UCS), unconditioned response (UCR), conditioned stimulus (CS), conditioned response …Getting rid of an old television can be a difficult task. Not only do you have to find a way to transport it, but you also need to make sure it is disposed of responsibly. Recycling is the best way to dispose of an old television in a safe ...a conditioned response (CR) John moves to a new apartment. He is in the shower when he hears his son flush the toilet. The water becomes extremely hot, and John jumps. After a few flushes during showers, John notices that he's …The behavior caused by the conditioned stimulus is called the conditioned response (CR). In the case of Pavlov’s dogs, they had learned to associate the tone (CS) with being fed, and they began to salivate (CR) in anticipation of food. Tone (CS) → Salivation (CR) Figure 2. Before conditioning, an unconditioned stimulus (food) produces an ...A stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning. unconditioned response. In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth. conditioned stimulus. in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that ...The conditioned response (CR) is the usually the same as the. CS. US. UR. CR. Multiple Choice. Edit. Please save your changes before editing any questions. 30 seconds. 1 pt. In the Little Albert experiment, the Neutral stimulus is the: …Eventually, the dogs began to salivate to the tone alone, just as they previously had salivated at the sound of the assistants’ footsteps. The behavior caused by the conditioned stimulus is called the conditioned response (CR). In the case of Pavlov’s dogs, they had learned to associate the tone (CS) with being fed, and they began to ... The conditioned response (CR) is the response to the conditioned stimulus, whereas the unconditioned response (UR) corresponds to the unconditioned stimulus. How do you identify UCS UCR CS and CR? UCS: Each presentation of the CS is followed closely by presentation of the UCS (unconditioned stimulus)for example, the puff …Pavlov (1927) observed that pairing an initially innocuous stimulus (i.e., conditioned stimulus, CS) with a biologically relevant stimulus (i.e., unconditioned stimulus, US) caused subsequent presentations of the CS to elicit a conditioned response (CR) that is usually similar to the unconditioned response (UR) evoked by the biologically relevant stimulus.In classical conditioning, the natural, often reflexive, response to a US is called the unconditioned response (UR), and a previously neutral stimulus that now evokes the response is called the conditioned stimulus (CS). Eventually the CS alone will elicit the response, which is then called a conditioned response (CR).Once the association has been made between the UCS and the CS, presenting the conditioned stimulus alone will come to evoke a response even without the unconditioned stimulus. The resulting response is known as the conditioned response (CR). The conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral …In Pavlov's experiment, the sound of the tone served as the conditioned stimulus that, after learning, produced the conditioned response (CR), which is the acquired response to the formerly neutral stimulus. Note that the UR and the CR are the same behavior—in this case salivation—but they are given different names because they are ...unconditioned response (UCR) conditioned stimulus (CS) conditioned response (CR) unconditioned stimulus (UCS) After a response has been extinguished, it is quite common for the response to reappear spontaneously if a person _____. is continuously exposed to the original stimulus. returns to the original setting where the conditioning took placeConditioned response (CR) Pavlov eventually got his dogs to salivate to the sound of bells. The salivation elicited by the sound of the bell is called the. Generalization. When two similar, but different, stimuli elicit the same conditioned …Classical conditioning is the process by which a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a stimulus in the environment, and as a result, the environmental stimulus eventually elicits the same response as the natural stimulus. Classical conditioning was discovered by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist, who conducted a …... CR and a UCS 515 msec after CS onset when a CR did not occur. A 5th group received standard classical conditioning trials with an interstimulus interval of ...conditioned response (CR): response caused by the conditioned stimulus conditioned stimulus (CS): stimulus that elicits a response due to its being paired with an unconditioned stimulus higher-order …Conditioned Response (CR): A response triggered by the CS after conditioning. Pavlov’s famous dog. This classic experiment demonstrates the learning process through respondent conditioning. Pavlov who was studying his dogs’ digestive processes ended up discovering a new behavior.a conditioned response (CR) Every time ,little Clara blows air into her pets rabbits face ,he blinks. Soon , Clara starts to giggle right before blowing into his face. After a while , the rabbit blinks as soon as Clara starts to giggle before she has a chance to blow.After the audience had experienced this a few times, the sound of the music triggered the emotional reaction of fear in the audience even though the shark still had not appeared. At that point, fear in response to the sound of the eerie music was a(n): A. unconditioned response (UCR). B. conditioned response (CR). C. conditioned stimulus (CS).conditioned response (CR): response caused by the conditioned stimulus. conditioned stimulus (CS): stimulus that elicits a response due to its being paired with an …The reappearance of a conditioned response (CR) to a conditioned stimulus (CR) after a period of rest following extinction. Each time the response is recovered, it is weaker and is extinguished more quickly than before. To Pavlov, spontaneous recovery indicated that extinction wasn't a process of unlearning the conditioning that had taken place.Create an original example of classical conditioning and indicate each of the components (UCS, UCR, NS, CS, and CR). This exercise will serve as practice for an FRQ on this topic. (You do not need to do the definition portion of SODAS for this exercise). You must each create your original example - do not write down the same example as your ...CR: After a sufficient number of presentations of the CS followed by the UCS, the experimenter presents the CS without the UCS. If a response, an eye blink, occurs, the UCR is now called a conditioned response (CR). The eye blink response to the buzzer has been conditioned (learned). Shown graphically, the sequence isclassical conditioning. is a process by which we learn to associate stimuli and, consequently, to anticipate events. Figure 1. Ivan Pavlov’s research on the digestive system of dogs unexpectedly led to his discovery of the learning process now known as classical conditioning. Pavlov came to his conclusions about how learning occurs completely ...Eventually, the dogs began to salivate to the tone alone, just as they previously had salivated at the sound of the assistants’ footsteps. The behavior caused by the conditioned stimulus is called the conditioned response (CR). In the case of Pavlov’s dogs, they had learned to associate the tone (CS) with being fed, and they began to ... Terms in this set (42) Associative strength. -During respondent conditioning, this term is used to describe the relation between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the magnitude of the conditioned response (CR). -In general, associative strength increases over conditioning trials and reaches some maximum level. Backward conditioning. C. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Initially a neutral stimulus. After repeated pairings with the unconditioned stimulus, the CS elicits the same response as the US. D. Conditioned Response (CR) The response elicited by the conditioned stimulus due to the training. Classical conditioning is a method used to study associative learning.Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Which of the following provides information regarding brain function by monitoring the brain at work through metabolism of glucose, Carol Gilligan's critique of Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development focuses primarily on, For extinction to occur, which of the following must be true of the conditioned response (CR), the ... Blinking in response to a tone without a puff is a(n) a. unconditioned response (UR) b. unconditioned stimulus (US) c. conditioned response (CR) d. conditioned stimulus (CS) positive punishment To reduce the self-destructive behavior of some children with autism spectrum disorder, a therapist might squirt water at them whenever they bite ...Create an original example of classical conditioning and indicate each of the components (UCS, UCR, NS, CS, and CR). This exercise will serve as practice for an FRQ on this topic. (You do not need to do the definition portion of SODAS for this exercise). You must each create your original example - do not write down the same example as your ...CR: After a sufficient number of presentations of the CS followed by the UCS, the experimenter presents the CS without the UCS. If a response, an eye blink, occurs, the UCR is now called a conditioned response (CR). The eye blink response to the buzzer has been conditioned (learned). Shown graphically, the sequence isSpontaneous recovery is a phenomenon of learning and memory that was first named and described by Ivan Pavlov in his studies of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning.In that context, it refers to the re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a delay. Such a recovery of "lost" behaviors can be observed within a variety of domains, …What is the conditioned response (CR)? _____ response is the learned response to the conditioned stimulus (CS). ... ____ occurs when stimulus that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus also elicits the conditioned response, even though they have never been paired with the Unconditioned stimulus.The behavior caused by the conditioned stimulus is called the conditioned response (CR). In the case of Pavlov's dogs, they had learned to associate the tone (CS) with being fed, and they began to salivate (CR) in anticipation of food. Tone (CS) → Salivation (CR) Figure 2. Before conditioning, an unconditioned stimulus (food) produces an ...Eventually, the dogs began to salivate to the tone alone, just as they previously had salivated at the sound of the assistants’ footsteps. The behavior caused by the conditioned stimulus is called the conditioned response (CR). In the case of Pavlov’s dogs, they had learned to associate the tone (CS) with being fed, and they began to ...Spontaneous recovery is a phenomenon of learning and memory that was first named and described by Ivan Pavlov in his studies of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning.In that context, it refers to the re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a delay. Such a recovery of "lost" behaviors can be observed within a variety of domains, …food) and the unconditioned response (UR) to the US is an unlearned reflex response (e.g., salivation). After pairing is repeated (some learning may occur already after only one pairing), the organism exhibits a conditioned response (CR) to the CS when the CS is presented alone. The CR is usually similar to the UR (seeThe regulatory system then prepares itself by eliciting a defensive conditioned response (CR). Through repeated drug administration episodes, the link between the UCS and the CS becomes stronger and eventually the CS can elicit a CR in the absence of the UCS. This CR may then influence the individual’s homeostatic state …Conditioned Response (CR) Salivation in response to the CS (light, bell) is known as the conditioned response (CR). Thus, the previously neutral stimulus has now triggered the salivation, called the conditioned response (CR). When the CS elicits CR, the classical condition has been established.The conditioned response (CR) is the learned is the learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after CS-US pairing. Sometimes conditioned responses are quite similar to unconditioned responses, but .typically they are not as strong In studying a dog's response to various stimuli associated with meat powder, Pavlov rang a bell before …Aug 25, 2023 · A conditioned response (CR) is triggered by a conditioned stimulus (CS) after conditioning. Before conditioning, a CS is a neutral stimulus (NS) that cannot elicit a target response. After being repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US), the NS becomes a CS that can trigger a CR. CR doesn’t occur naturally. The chemotherapy medications are the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in this scenario, vomiting is the unconditioned response (UCR), the doctor's office is the conditioned stimulus (CS) after being matched with the UCS, and nausea is the conditioned response (CR).. Nausea is the common symptom of both acute and chronic chemotherapy …Learning is the process by which new knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, and ideas are acquired. Learning can occur through both unconscious and conscious pathways. Classical conditioning is one of those unconscious learning methods and is the most straightforward way in which humans can learn. Classical conditioning is the process in which an automatic, conditioned response is paired with ...What is meant by the statement, “Classical conditioning is a reversible process”? a. A conditioned response can be extinguished. b. An involuntary response will reverse during conditioning. c. The conditioned response (CR) is the reverse of the unconditioned response (UR). d. The conditioned response (CR) may elicit the unconditioned ...Eventually, the dogs began to salivate to the tone alone, just as they previously had salivated at the sound of the assistants’ footsteps. The behavior caused by the conditioned stimulus is called the conditioned response (CR). In the case of Pavlov’s dogs, they had learned to associate the tone (CS) with being fed, and they began to ... CR: Conditioned response. Classical Conditioning was first described by Pavlov (1927), who placed hungry dogs on a stand and delivered food powder (the US) following a tone (the CS) presentation. At the beginning, he observed that only the food presentation elicited salivation (the UR). After repeating the tone-food (CS-US) pairings a …Classical conditioning is a form of learning whereby a conditioned stimulus (CS) becomes associated with an unrelated unconditioned stimulus (US) to produce a behavioral response known as a conditioned response (CR). The conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus.The unconditioned stimulus is …Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response is called a(n):, The acquisition of mental information by observing events, by watching others, or by means of language is called:, Findings from Garcia's research on taste aversion in rats …In classical conditioning, the conditioned response (CR) is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. In Ivan Pavlov’s experiments in classical conditioning, the dog’s salivation was the conditioned response to the sound of a bell. Acquisition.In general, classical conditioning involves the pairing of two stimulus events, typically a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS), and an unconditioned stimulus (US). That an association between these two events is learned is reflected in the acquisition of a conditioned response (CR) to the CS.Classical conditioning is a form of learning whereby a conditioned stimulus (CS) becomes associated with an unrelated unconditioned stimulus (US) to produce a behavioral response known as a conditioned response (CR). The conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus. The unconditioned stimulus is usually a ...Eventually, the dogs began to salivate to the tone alone, just as they previously had salivated at the sound of the assistants’ footsteps. The behavior caused by the conditioned stimulus is called the conditioned response (CR). In the case of Pavlov’s dogs, they had learned to associate the tone (CS) with being fed, and they began to ... Question: Question 10 3.1 pts For generalization to occur, which of the following must be true of the conditioned response (CR), the conditioned stimulus (CS), and the unconditioned stimulus (UCS)? The CR occurs after the CS but does not occur after other stimuli. The CR occurs after a stimulus that is similar to the CS. The CS and the UCS are …Jun 17, 2023 · Here, responding to my name is a deeply ingrained but nonetheless conditioned response. The sound “Chris!”, a neutral stimulus, has become a conditioned stimulus, due to the cultural meaning assigned to it. My reaction to my name, in turn, is the conditioned response. 8. Reaching for our Phones. The behavior caused by the conditioned stimulus is called the conditioned response (CR). In the case of Pavlov’s dogs, they had learned to associate the tone (CS) with being fed, and they began to salivate (CR) in anticipation of food.An unconditioned stimulus triggers some kind of physiologic response. So in our case, the carrot triggers excitement. The excitement is the response. And in fact, the more descriptive way to refer to this response is to call it an unconditioned response. So an unconditioned stimulus elicits an unconditioned response. Create an original example of classical conditioning and indicate each of the components (UCS, UCR, NS, CS, and CR). This exercise will serve as practice for an FRQ on this topic. (You do not need to do the definition portion of SODAS for this exercise). You must each create your original example - do not write down the same example as your ...The classical-conditioning term for an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus. 6 Q conditioned response (CR) A The classical-conditioning term for a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is associated ...The “CR” next to a monetary amount on a bank or credit card statement represents a credit made to the account. A credit is when money is added to the account. If a credit has been made to a credit card account, it reduces the payment needed...Mar 22, 2022 · Acquisition refers to the first stages of learning, when a response is established. In classical conditioning, acquisition refers to the period when the stimulus comes to evoke the conditioned response. Classical conditioning is a learning process that involves pairing a previously neutral stimulus with a stimulus that naturally evokes a response. The stimulus that naturally elicits a response without conditioning, such as the meat powder in Pavlov's experiment. After being paired with the unconditioned stimulus (meat power), the previously neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the response it triggers is a learned or conditioned response (CR) If a person was bitten ...If thinking about it causes your mouth to water, then your salivation would be referred to as a conditioned response. Ex. If a child gets upset and cries after receiving an injection at the doctor's office and now cries when he is told they need to visit the doctor, the mention of the doctor's office is a conditioned response (CR). and more. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Process of classical conditioning - how conditioned responses are acquired, maintained and extinguished, Apply classical conditioning to everyday life examples (see class activity for sample examples, Operant conditioning - how reinforcement and punishment results in the …In perhaps the best studied classical conditioning paradigm, delay conditioning of the eye-blink response, a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS), such as a tone, is presented just before an air puff unconditioned stimulus (US). The US is then presented and the two stimuli coterminate (Fig. 1, A and B). Initially, an eye blink occurs reflexively ...The behavior caused by the conditioned stimulus is called the conditioned response (CR). In the case of Pavlov’s dogs, they had learned to associate the tone (CS) with being fed, and they began to salivate (CR) in anticipation of food. Tone (CS) → Salivation (CR)Tone (CS) → Salivation (CR) Before conditioning, an unconditioned stimulus ...Nov 20, 2022 · The fear he feels is a conditioned response. 7. Phone Ringtone/Buzz. UCS: You hear a tone/buzz from your mobile UCR: You check for notifications and consume content. CS: A familiar notification chime heard in a public area CR: You instinctively reach for your phone. We clutch our phone as if it was a treasure we can’t lose. Eventually, the dogs began to salivate to the tone alone, just as they previously had salivated at the sound of the assistants’ footsteps. The behavior caused by the conditioned stimulus is called the conditioned response (CR). In the case of Pavlov’s dogs, they had learned to associate the tone (CS) with being fed, and they began to ... conditioned response (CR): In classical conditioning, an organism’s learned response to a conditioned stimulus. conditioned stimulus (CS): In classical conditioning, an environmental event that an organism associates with an unconditioned stimulus; the conditioned stimulus begins to lead to a reaction that is similar to an unconditioned …Eventually, the dogs began to salivate to the tone alone, just as they previously had salivated at the sound of the assistants’ footsteps. The behavior caused by the conditioned stimulus is called the conditioned response (CR). In the case of Pavlov’s dogs, they had learned to associate the tone (CS) with being fed, and they began to ...4. Note that the UCR and CR are typically the same but occur in response to different stimuli. There are rare cases in which the responses are different. C. Acquisition 1. Acquisition involves repeated pairings of the CS and the UCS. The greater the number of pairings (trials), the stronger the conditioned response. However, the first few ... To find someone who lives in Denmark, use the Danish Civil Registration System, or CRS. The CRS contains personal registration details about those people who are living in Denmark. The CRS was established in 1968.conditioned response (CR) In respondent conditioning, a CR is elicited by a conditioned stimulus. The conditioned stimulus acquires the power to elicit the CR by its repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus or another conditioned stimulus.The behavior caused by the conditioned stimulus is called the conditioned response (CR). In the case of Pavlov’s dogs, they had learned to associate the tone (CS) with being fed, and they began to salivate (CR) in …In this case, the chemotherapy drugs are the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), vomiting is the unconditioned response (UCR), the doctor’s office is the conditioned stimulus (CS) after being paired with the UCS, and nausea is the conditioned response (CR). Aug 25, 2023 · A conditioned response (CR) is triggered by a conditioned stimulus (CS) after conditioning. Before conditioning, a CS is a neutral stimulus (NS) that cannot elicit a target response. After being repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US), the NS becomes a CS that can trigger a CR. CR doesn’t occur naturally. In Pavlov's experiment, the sound of the tone served as the conditioned stimulus that, after learning, produced the conditioned response (CR), which is the acquired response to the formerly neutral stimulus. Note that the UR and the CR are the same behavior—in this case salivation—but they are given different names because they are ...The Pavlovian sign-tracking CR is an involuntary acquired reflexive response. It is poorly controlled and elicited by the presentation of the CS. STM proposes that poorly controlled alcohol drinking in humans may be due to repeated pairings of the alcohol sipper (e.g., cocktail glass) CS with alcohol's rewarding effects US, resulting in sign ...The behavior caused by the conditioned stimulus is called the conditioned response (CR). In the case of Pavlov’s dogs, they had learned to associate the tone (CS) with …May 18, 2022 · Unconditioned Stimulus vs. Conditioned Stimulus . An unconditioned stimulus causes a response without any prior learning on the part of the subject. The response is automatic and occurs without thought. In contrast, a conditioned stimulus produces a reaction only after the subject has learned to associate it with a given outcome. Terms in this set (14) The process of developing and strengthening a conditioned response (CR) with repeated pairings of a neutral stimulus (NS) with an unconditioned stimulus (US). Acquisition proceeds rapidly during early conditioning, but gradually levels off. In general, more intense unconditioned stimuli (US) produce stronger and more ...Eventually, the dogs began to salivate to the tone alone, just as they previously had salivated at the sound of the assistants’ footsteps. The behavior caused by the conditioned stimulus is called the conditioned response (CR). In the case of Pavlov’s dogs, they had learned to associate the tone (CS) with being fed, and they began to ...food) and the unconditioned response (UR) to the US is an unlearned reflex response (e.g., salivation). After pairing is repeated (some learning may occur already after only one pairing), the organism exhibits a conditioned response (CR) to the CS when the CS is presented alone. The CR is usually similar to the UR (seeStudy with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like In Pavlov's classical conditioning experiment, the dogs gradually stopped salivating to the bell once they learned that the bell wasn't accompanied by meat powder. This phenomenon is an example of ___________., In Pavlov's classical conditioning experiment, he presented the sound of a bell along with meat powder to his dogs ...A CR seals cross-reference is a tool for finding compatible oil seals from the seal manufacturer Chicago Rawhide’s competitors. Chicago Rawhide is a subsidiary of SKF and does not have a standalone cross-reference for its oil seals.. Definition & Examples. In classical conditioning, the conditSep 28, 2023 · This now conditioned stimulus (CS) c The regulatory system then prepares itself by eliciting a defensive conditioned response (CR). Through repeated drug administration episodes, the link between the UCS and the CS becomes stronger and eventually the CS can elicit a CR in the absence of the UCS. This CR may then influence the individual’s homeostatic state …In this case, the chemotherapy drugs are the unconditioned stimulus (US), vomiting is the unconditioned response (UCR), the doctor’s office is the conditioned stimulus (CS) after being paired with the US, and nausea is the conditioned response (CR). Let’s assume that the chemotherapy drugs that Farah takes are given through a syringe injection. Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing The behavior caused by the conditioned stimulus is called the conditioned response (CR). In the case of Pavlov’s dogs, they had learned to associate the tone (CS) with …Caused by a virus, shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is a painful condition that results in concentrated skin rashes and blisters. The varicella-zoster virus, the virus that causes shingles, is also responsible for chickenpox. conditioned response (CR) in classical condition...

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